Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Ancient Imperial Patriarchate of Aquileia shares history with the modern Anglo-Italian Imperial Patriarchate

St. Paulinus II,
Patriarch of Aquileia
PATRIARCHAL SEE 18 December 2019 (ORCNS) - The Imperial Patriarchate and Apostolic See of Aquileia is an ancient part of the patrimony in Imperial Italy of the Anglo-Italian Imperial Patriarchate. Many of the privileges and traditions of the modern Imperial Patriarchate relate to ancient customs, privileges, and traditions of the Imperial Patriarchate of Aquileia. 

Located in the extreme northeast part of the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, it's territory today spans the northeast part of Italy and parts of Austria, Slovenia, and Croatia. The broad territory was and is known as Friuli and at times constituted a secular state. As a diocese, it was founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, who was sent to the area by St. Peter the Apostle. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the eventual conquest of Italy by the Lombards and the subsequent conquest of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy by Charlemagne led to the Patriarchate becoming a state within the Holy Roman Empire. The Anglo-Italian Imperial Patriarchate today is the heir to the Burgundian House of Arles and of the Spanish Houses of Ivrea and Barcelona in Imperial Italy. Those houses ruled the kingdom of Italy itself as a king or vice-King and also ruled several of the southern Italian states. One such monarch, Bosone, Margrave of Tuscany, interceded on the behalf of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 931. Also, Berengar II of Ivrea, King of Italy, in addition to being a descendant of Charlemagne, was the son of Gisela of Friuli, the daughter of Berengar I, Margrave of Friuli and King of Italy. Berengar II himself was also Margrave of Friuli. From there it remained a secular territory of the Holy Roman Empire until it was ceded to the Patriarch of Aquileia in 1077. 
Don Giovanni Grimani,
Patriarch of Aquileia in the
distinctive patriarchal habit
resembling that of the Pope.
The Patriarch of Aquileia enjoyed the Imperial titles of Count and Prince-Bishop and was a monarch in every way. The Republic of Venice eventually became their most troublesome arrival, and in 1411 there was a war that resulted in the end of the Patriarchate in 1433. The territories of the Patriarchate were then ruled by the Venetians.

Don Bertholdus, Patriarch
of Aquileia, in red-trimmed
white habit and
white mozzetta
The highly-privileged Imperial Patriarchs of Aquileia enjoyed many privileges. As patriarchs, they were entitled to red vesture of a style similar to the Pope. They often used a red velvet mozzetta, but without the fur trim found on that of the Pope. Their periodic use of a white habit with red trim and a fur mozzetta may be seen today in the red-trimmed white cassock used by the Anglo-Italian Imperial Patriarch and his fur mozzetta used during the winter half-year. They also used the temporal symbols of authority, including the orb – which remains part of the state regalia of the Anglo-Italian Imperial Patriarchate today.

Don Paulinus, Cardinal Patriarch of
Aquileia is seen in the centre in
fur mozzetta and red galero
Also, the Patriarchate of Aquileia periodically held a special mass called the Mass of the Sword. During that mass, the deacon wears a special helmet and gives specific salutes with a sword. A similar mass is part of the traditional ceremonial of the modern Imperial Patriarchate.

The modern Imperial Patriarchate in memory of St. Stephen stands as an example of continuity with all the elements of its rich and diverse heritage. The ancient Imperial Patriarchate of Aquileia is an important part of that heritage.